Muineál femoral

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Muineál femoral

The femoral neck (from Latin femur) is a part of the femur, which is the single thigh bone located between the hip and the knee.

Femoral neck: anatomy

struchtúr. The neck of the femur is part of the femur, and more exactly the proximal end of the femur (1). Elongated in shape, the femur is made up of three parts:

  • foirceann cóngarach, suite ag an gcromán agus comhdhéanta de thrí chuid (1):

    - ceann an femur, atá suite san acetabulum, cuas articular na cnáimhe coxal, a fhoirmíonn an cromáin;

    - muineál na femur a nascann an ceann leis an diaphysis;

    – two trochanters bony protrusions, which are positioned at the level of the connection of the neck and the head.

  • deireadh distal, suite ag leibhéal na glúine;
  • diaphysis, nó corp, cuid lárnach den chnámh atá suite idir an dá chríoch.

Femoral neck joints. The neck of the femur and the head of the femur form an angle with the body of the femur, called the neck and shaft angle. More important during childhood, this angle then measures on average from 115 ° to 140 °.

Fiseolaíocht / Histeolaíocht

Tarchur meáchain. The femoral neck is involved in the transmission of body weight from the hip bone to the tibia (2).

Dinimic an choirp. The joints of the femur at the hip participate in the body’s ability to move and maintain the upright posture. (2)

Ore Níos mó ar an ábhar:  Diosca intervertebral

Femoral neck pathologies

Taking into account the constraints imposed by the transmission of weight and the dynamics of the body on the body of the femur, the latter is one of the most sensitive parts of the femur (1).

Femoral neck fractures. The most common femoral fractures are those in the neck of the femur, especially in older people with osteoporosis. Fractures are manifested by pain in the hip.

Epiphysis ceann femoral. Léirítear epiphysiolysis ag mínormáltacht an phlaic epiphyseal, a thagraíonn don phlaic ag deireadh cnámh fada mar an femur. Is féidir leis an bpaiteolaíocht seo forbairt ag ceann cóngarach an femur agus is féidir le ceann an femur scaradh ó mhuineál na femur. Is féidir leis an díorma seo neamhghnáchaíochtaí eile a chur faoi deara mar coxa vara, dífhoirmiú chuid uachtarach an femur. (1)

thigh thigh, thigh valgus. These problems correspond to a deformation of the upper part of the femur by modification of the angle of inclination between the neck and the body of the femur. This angle is normally between 115 ° and 140 °. When this angle is abnormally lower, we speak of ceathar maide, cé go bhfuil sé thar a bheith níos airde, is é a solas ceathar. (1)

Galair chnámh.

  • oistéapóróis. Is éard atá sa phaiteolaíocht seo caillteanas dlús cnámh a fhaightear go ginearálta i ndaoine os cionn 60 bliain d’aois. Cuireann sé le leochaileacht cnámh agus cuireann sé billí chun cinn. (3)
  • Ailse ó chnámh. Is féidir le metastases forbairt sna cnámha. Is gnách go dtagann na cealla ailse seo ó ailse phríomhúil in orgán eile. (4)
  • Diostróife cnámh. This pathology constitutes an abnormal development or remodeling of bone tissue and includes many diseases. One of the most common, Paget’s disease (5) causes bone densification and deformation, leading to pain. Algodystrophy refers to the appearance of pain and / or stiffness following a trauma (fracture, surgery, etc.).
Ore Níos mó ar an ábhar:  Sternum

Cóireálacha

Cóir leighis. Depending on the disease diagnosed, different treatments may be prescribed to regulate or strengthen bone tissue, as well as to reduce pain and inflammation.

Cóireáil máinliachta. Ag brath ar an gcineál briste, is féidir máinliacht a dhéanamh le bioráin a shocrú, pláta coinnithe le scriú, socraitheoir seachtrach nó i roinnt cásanna próistéise.

Cóireáil ortaipéideach. Ag brath ar an gcineál briste, is féidir plástar nó roisín a shuiteáil.

 

Cóireáil fhisiciúil. Is féidir teiripí fisiciúla, mar fhisiteiripe nó fisiteiripe, a fhorordú.

Cóireáil hormónach, radaiteiripe nó ceimiteiripe. Féadfar na cóireálacha seo a fhorordú ag brath ar chéim an dul chun cinn ailse.

Examination of the femoral neck

Scrúdú fisiceach. Diagnosis begins with an assessment of lower limb and pelvic pain to identify their causes.

 

Scrúdú íomháithe míochaine. Ag brath ar an bpaiteolaíocht amhrasta nó cruthaithe, féadfar scrúduithe breise a dhéanamh ar nós X-gha, ultrafhuaime, scanadh CT, MRI, scintigraphy nó ​​fiú densitiméadracht cnámh.

Anailís mhíochaine. D’fhonn paiteolaíochtaí áirithe a aithint, is féidir anailísí fola nó fuail a dhéanamh, mar shampla, an dáileog fosfair nó cailciam.

Bithóipse cnámh. I roinnt cásanna, tógtar sampla cnámh chun diagnóis a dhearbhú.

 

Stair

I mí na Nollag 2015, nocht an iris PLOS ONE alt a bhaineann le fionnachtain femur daonna ó speiceas réamhmhodern. (6) Thángthas air sa bhliain 1989 sa tSín, níor rinneadh staidéar ar an gcnámh seo go dtí 2012. Ag dul siar 14 bliana, is cosúil go mbaineann an cnámh seo le speiceas atá ag druidim leis anAerach soghluaiste orAerach erectus. Mar sin d’fhéadfadh daoine primitive maireachtáil go dtí deireadh na hOighearaoise deireanaí, 10 mbliana ó shin. D’fhéadfadh an fhionnachtain seo a thabhairt le tuiscint go bhfuil líneáil éabhlóideach nua (000) ann.

Ore Níos mó ar an ábhar:  Girdle ghualainn: cad é?

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